Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes or DM, is a group of metabolic disorder that involves high blood sugar over a long period of time.
There are two main types of Diabetes Mellitus, according to Health Direct. As per the publication, Diabetes Type 1 is an auto-immune disease where the body’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Insulin cannot be produced by people with Type 1 Diabetes, so insulin injections would be required as lifelong management for the condition.
The other type of Diabetes Mellitus is the Type 2 diabetes. According to Health Direct, Diabetes Type 2 is linked with hereditary factors and lifestyle-related factors, such as improper nutrition, inadequate physical activity, and being overweight or obese. People affected with Type 2 Diabetes can managed the condition through incorporating changes in their lifestyle; but then, medications like insulin shots may also be required to manage the level of sugar in the blood. According to Health Direct, Type 2 Diabetes is usual in people more than 40 years old; nonetheless, the condition is now also becoming common in the younger population.
According to the American Diabetes Association, 25.8 percent of the Americans had diabetes in 2010 while 29.1 percent of the population had the disorder in 2012. This indicates that there had been a 3.3 percent increase in diabetes cases in the American population from 2010 to 2012. According to the website, Diabetes Mellitus remained as the seventh leading cause of death in the United States in 2010, involving 69,071 mortality cases.
Diabetes has a number of symptoms. According to Web MD, warning signs of diabetes could be so mild that they were unnoticeable, especially in diabetes type 2. On the other hand, the symptoms of Type 1 diabetes usually happen in few days or few weeks. Web MD reported that the common symptoms of diabetes mellitus include feelings of thirst, frequency in urination, hunger and fatigue, dry mouth and itchy skin, and blurred vision.
People may experience a condition called polydipsia or increase in drinking fluids. In the normal physiology of the body, glucose is reabsorbed by the urinary system as it passes through the kidneys. According to Web MD, the body tries to get rid of excess sugar in the blood through stimulating the body to form water. The brain activates the thirst center, resulting to the body’s increased fluid intake. Due to the increased fluid consumption, the urinary system accommodates more fluid, thus, yielding increased urine output. Since the body releases fluids through urination, the body’s fluid level will go down, resulting to dry mouth and moist, itchy skin. The change in the body fluid levels will also affect the eyes, since they also have fluids necessary for vision. According to Web MD, the fluctuation in the fluid levels of the body will cause the lens to swell, changing their shape and losing their focusing ability.
Hunger and fatigue are also warning signs of diabetes. The food consumed is transformed into glucose, which the body cells use for energy. However, the body cells require insulin for the glucose molecules to enter the cell. In diabetes mellitus, the body does not produce sufficient or any insulin or the body cells resist the insulin produced by the body, thus, the glucose will not be able to enter the cells for energy. As a result, the body will not be able to generate energy for its activities, leading the brain to stimulate the hunger center and the body to experience feelings of exhaustion.
Diabetes can be prevented through a healthy lifestyle, such as not smoking, exercising regularly, and eating nutritious foods. If these warning signs are noticed, it is best to raise the concern to a physician.